1. TAWEESAK THEPPITAK - Professor, Faculty of Logistics, Burapha University, Thailand.
Nowadays, pattern of global logistics and supply chain have been changing, because of accelerating to open trade liberalization and economic cooperation between nations. The global chain becomes longer and more complex. Global trade also discloses opportunities and complexity. Countries support and protect their importers and exporters by increasingly using non-tariff barriers. As a result, these barriers increase unnecessary costs and complexity, including extending longer lead time. The objective of this study is to examine current status of global logistics and supply chain players and their changing roles. It also identifies future trends and problematic issues of the players in global perspective. Finally, it formulates a new model to effectively contribute Thailand’s changing international trade. To achieve the objectives, it reviews the literature and collects primary data through in-depth interviews. Case studies are used to generate insights and understanding. It concentrates only manufacturing and agricultural goods as a representative. It interviews five companies in each section. Validity and reliability are carefully examined. The result shows that Thai importers and exporters lack global knowledge and flexibility to changing global trade. They cannot operate their business in old way. As Thai government accelerates to open trade liberalization to partner countries, and then tariff barriers are reduced or eliminated. Therefore, Thai importers and exporters are confronting to serious barriers when trading with partners. Even though tariff rate has been annually decreasing until zero percent, but non-tariff barriers (TBT, SPS, national treatment, and standards) are increasingly becoming big problems. Players, in particular Thai side, need to be more professional in term of global knowledge and understanding, including readiness to adapt and flex to changes. New global chain would be shorter and leaner in term of total costs and time. The study leads to a conclusion that before managing global logistics and supply chain, it needs to examine status of global players, including identifying current and future problematic issues associated with changing trade patterns and future policy making of partner countries. Then defining a framework and developing a new model. Further research would be conducted by focusing on changing role and responsibility of specific logistics activities (i.e. freight forwarding, customs broker, ICD/CFS, Shipping lines and ports).
Non-tariff barriers, Logistics, Supply chain, International trade, Thailand.